The crude steel process
In large, integrated steel plants, also known as ISPs, the raw materials used to create steel consist of iron ore lumps, sinters and pellets, coke (which is a byproduct of cooking coal) and fluxes such as limestone or dolomite. In mini steel plants, also known as MSPs, the raw materials consist of scrap, fluxes and ferro alloys. Sponge iron can substitute scrap up to fifty percent. A blast furnace is used in order to charge the raw materials. Hot air is pumped in to melt the iron and fluxes. Molten metal that has cooled is known as pig iron. It needs to be further refined in order to create steel. Slag (which is fluxes with foreign matter from the ore) is separated and blended with clinker in order to create cement. An oxygen furnace is used to further reduce the impurities. This creates crude steel.
The tools of steel making
In the mini steel plants, the raw materials are sent to melt in an electric arc furnace, an electric current passes through electric rods creating an arc that melts the metal. Induction furnaces are also used, though they are being phased out. The tools and supplies used in the production of steel are dangerous due to not only the size of the tools, but also the heat needed in order to melt the materials. Hot air can be one of the most dangerous ?¢‚Ç¨Àútools?¢‚Ç¨‚Ñ¢ in the production of steel, this is due to the fact that the air is extremely hot and can produce intense burns immediately. Great care has to be taken in order to work and interact with the tools and materials in order to create a safe working environment.